Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder that causes dwarfism (short stature). It is a disorder in which bone and cartilage do not grow normally. It is the most common cause of dwarfism.
This condition leads to patients attaining a full-grown height of less than four feet. The greatest shortening occurs in the humerus (the bone between the shoulder and the elbow) and the femur (the bone between the hip and the knee). There may also be underdevelopment of the face.
Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. It occurs in one in 26,000 to one in 40,000 live births.
Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder. It is caused by mutations in the FGFR3 gene that inhibits growth of cartilage at the growth plate. FGFR3 encodes a protein called Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3. This protein is the site of action of a major growth factor responsible for lengthening bones. When this growth factor cannot act properly due to the absence of its receptor, the growth of bones, at the growth plate’s cartilage, is slowed. This leads to shorter bones, abnormally shaped bones, and shorter stature.