Fruitarianism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fruitarianism involves the practice of following a diet that includes fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds, without animal products or grains.[1] Fruitarianism is a subset of dietary veganism.

Fruitarianism may be adopted for different reasons, including ethical, religious, political, medical, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, and health reasons. There are many varieties of the diet. Some people whose diet consists of 75% or more fruit consider themselves fruitarians.[2]

Close-up of a fruit bowl with apples, grapes, prunes, nuts, dates, tomatoes, lemons, mandarins, pears, and a pumpkin. Contents 1 Definitions 2 Motivation 3 Scientific studies 3.1 Dental studies 3.2 Clinical studies 4 Nutritional concerns 4.1 Nutritional deficiencies 4.2 Vitamin B12 4.3 Growth and development issues, deaths 5 Notable adherents 5.1 Historical figures 5.2 Fictional 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Definitions

Some fruitarians will eat only what falls (or would fall) naturally from a plant: that is, foods that can be harvested without killing or harming the plant.[3][4][5] These foods consist primarily of culinary fruits, nuts, and seeds.[6] According to author Adam Gollner, some fruitarians eat only fallen fruit.[7] Some do not eat grains, believing it is unnatural to do so,[8] and some fruitarians feel that it is improper for humans to eat seeds[9] as they contain future plants,[7] or nuts and seeds,[10] or any foods besides juicy fruits.[11] Others believe they should eat only plants that spread seeds when the plant is eaten.[12] Others eat seeds and some cooked foods.[13] Some fruitarians use the botanical definitions of fruits and consume pulses, such as beans, peas, or other legumes. Other fruitarians’ diets include raw fruits, dried fruits, nuts, honey and olive oil,[14] or fruits, nuts, beans and chocolate.[15]


Some fruitarians of the Judeo-Christian faiths believe, based on Genesis 1:29, that fruitarianism was the original diet of humankind in the form of Adam and Eve.[13] They believe that a return to an Eden-like paradise will require simple living and a holistic approach to health and diet.[16] Some fruitarians wish, like Jains, to avoid killing anything, including plants,[13] and refer to ahimsa fruitarianism.[17] Some fruitarians say that eating some types of fruit does the parent plant a favor and that fleshy fruit has evolved to be eaten by animals, to achieve seed dispersal.[12]

Scientific studies Dental studies

In 1979, Professor Alan Walker, a Johns Hopkins University paleoanthropologist, reported that preliminary studies of unmarked tooth enamel in early hominoids suggested that pre-human ancestors apparently had a diet of mostly fruit. Walker said, "I don’t want to make too much of this yet. But it is quite a surprise."[18]

Clinical studies

In 1971, a short-term study by B. J. Meyer was published in the South African Medical Journal[19] describing how lipid profiles and glucose tolerances improved on a particular fruitarian diet.[20] An earlier 1971 study by Meyer tested a 45-year-old teacher who claimed she had eaten only fruits for the past 12years, who was found to be in "excellent health".[21] In a further trial in the study, body weights of overweight subjects showed a tendency to "level off" at the "’theoretically ideal’ weight".[22]

Nutritional concerns

According to nutritionists, adults must be careful not to follow a fruit-only diet for too long,[23] a fruitarian diet is not suitable for teens,[24] and a fruitarian diet is wholly unsuitable for children.[23]

Nutritional deficiencies

Fruitarianism is more restrictive than veganism or raw veganism.[25] The Health Promotion Program at Columbia University reports that a fruitarian diet can cause deficiencies in calcium, protein, iron, zinc, vitamin D, most B vitamins (especially B12), and essential fatty acids. Additionally, the Health Promotion Program at Columbia reports that food restrictions in general may lead to hunger, cravings, food obsessions, social disruptions, and social isolation.[24]

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, a bacterial product, cannot be obtained from fruits. According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health "natural food sources of vitamin B12 are limited to foods that come from animals."[26] Like raw vegans who do not consume B12-fortified foods (certain plant milks and breakfast cereals, for example), fruitarians may need to include a B12 supplement in their diet or risk vitamin B12 deficiency.

Growth and development issues, deaths

In children, growth and development may be at risk. Some nutritionists state that children should not follow a fruitarian diet. Nutritional problems include severe protein-energy malnutrition, anemia and deficiencies including proteins, iron, calcium, essential fatty acids, raw fibre and a wide range of vitamins and minerals